Chapter 21: The Baroque in Italy:
The Church and Its Appeal
Multiple Choice Questions
1. A defining characteristic of Baroque art is
a. attention to viewers’ emotional experience of a work.
b. return to the forms and proportions of Classical art.
c. focus on symbolism.
d. minimal decoration and sensuousness.
Answer: a page 689 LO: 21.1
2. The term “Baroque” was originally used in a derogatory way, because the new style
a. was associated with the common people.
b. was very expensive to create.
c. defied the Council of Trent’s directives.
d. was seen as too ornate and strange.
Answer: d page 689 LO: 21.1
3. Baroque artists placed elements on a diagonal plane, rather than the frontal and parallel planes used by Renaissance artists to
a. evoke a sense of greater depth.
b. induce more defined shadows.
c. produce a stronger sense of action.
d. provide greater balance.
Answer: c page 691 LO: 21.1
4. The Roman patrons who were most responsible for creating the Baroque style were
a. the middle class.
b. the nobility.
d. the papal court.
Answer: d page 691 LO: 21.1
5. Gianlorenzo Bernini decorated the baldachino’s grooved columns with bronze vines in Saint Peter’s Basilica to
a. symbolize the union of the Old and New Testaments.
b. create a sense of naturalism.
c. emphasize the blending of Classical and Italian design.
d. draw the viewers’ eyes upward along the spirals.
Answer: a page 692 LO: 21.1
6. In his Cornaro Chapel’s sculptural program, Bernini equated Teresa of Ávila’s religious visions with
a. spiritual rebirth.
c. sexual orgasm.
Answer: c page 693 LO: 21.1
7. On each side of his Cornaro Chapel sculptural program, Gianlorenzo Bernini included theater boxes to
a. allow visitors to have a better view of Saint Teresa.
b. create preferential seating for the Cornaro family.
c. emphasize his design’s high drama.
d. provide extra seating for churchgoers.
Answer: c page 693 LO: 21.1
8. In the Four Rivers Fountain, Gianlorenzo Bernini intended the obelisk to represent
a. the triumph of the Roman Catholic Church over the world’s rivers.
b. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III’s defeat of Egypt.
c. the domination of the Roman Catholic Church over paganism.
d. the Roman Catholic Church’s position as the center of the world.
Answer: a page 695 LO: 21.1
9. Giacomo della Porta’s façade for the church of Il Gesù considered by many to be the first architectural manifestation of the Baroque because of its
a. ornate ceiling painting.
b. classic proportions.
c. dramatic jamb statues.
d. added dimensionality.
Answer: d page 697 LO: 21.1
10. Fra Andrea Pozzo created the highly dramatic space in Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius by using
d. an invisible complement.
Answer: b page 698 LO: 21.1
11. In The Calling of Saint Matthew, Caravaggio portrayed his subjects in the attire of his time, not Jesus’s
a. so that he could use richer colors and brushstrokes.
b. to conform with other paintings in the series.
c. to enable the audience to identify with them.
d. to portray the painting’s patrons realistically.
Answer: c page 702 LO: 21.2
12. In The Calling of Saint Matthew, Caravaggio uses light to
a. transform the calling into a miracle.
b. identify which of the subjects is Matthew.
c. make Matthew’s conversion seem threatening.
d. makes Jesus’s entrance seem threatening.
Answer: a page 702 LO: 21.2
13. What technique that contrasts large areas of dark with smaller illuminated areas did Caravaggio master?
a. atmospheric perspective
d. invisible complement
Answer: b page 702 LO: 21.2
14. Caravaggio’s Conversion of St. Paul and John Donne’s sonnet “Batter My Heart” share a thematic interest in
a. the celebration of the physical appetite.
b. the tension between the sacred and the secular.
c. conversion imagined as physical ravishment.
d. light revealing faith’s transformative power.
Answer: c page 703 LO: 21.2
15. In her paintings, Elisabetta Sirani depicted Christianity’s miracles as
a. everyday events.
b. mythological events.
c. sexual experiences.
d. dramas of harmony.
Answer: a page 704 LO: 21.2
16. Artemisia Gentileschi was so obsessed with the biblical story of Judith beheading Holofernes that she painted five versions of it with Judith being a self-portrait, because
a. Gentileschi was of Jewish descent.
b. Gentileschi’s mother was named Judith.
c. Judith was a female artist.
d. Gentileschi had been raped.
Answer: d page 704 LO: 21.2
17. Musical divisions were less pronounced in Venice because the city
a. had traditionally ignored papal authority.
b. had a large Protestant population.
c. was too far from Rome for anyone to notice.
d. was not part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Answer: a page 706 LO: 21.3
18. Giovanni Gabrieli aimed to make church music more emotionally engaging in all of the following ways EXCEPT
a. by playing two organs against each other.
b. by placing the four choirs in separate areas.
c. by adding the first all-female ensemble to the choir.
d. by using brass and wood instruments in the music.
Answer: c page 706 LO: 21.3
19. The canzona’s dominant rhythm is
Answer: b page 706 LO: 21.3
20. Giovanni Gabrieli organized his compositions around a single note—the tonic note to
a. heighten the sense of harmonic drama.
b. allow more pitch for the voices.
c. create effects of sonority in a cathedral.
d. enable words to be heard over the music.
Answer: a pages 706–707 LO: 21.3
21. The first operas were inspired by
a. Giovanni Gabrieli’s compositions.
b. Gianlorenzo Bernini’s sculptures.
c. Venetian street processions.
d. ancient Greek drama.
Answer: d page 707 LO: 21.3
22. Claudio Monteverdi’s first opera was inspired by the Greek myth
a. Prometheus and Pandora.
b. Orpheus and Eurydice.
c. Paris and Helen of Troy.
d. Zeus and Leda.
Answer: b page 708 LO: 21.3
23. Why were only girls in Venice’s orphanages given music instruction?
a. Girls would handle the delicate instruments more gently.
b. Girls required musical skill to secure a good marriage.
c. It was assumed that boys would enter the labor force.
d. Venetian orphanages housed only girls.
Answer: c page 709 LO: 21.3
24. Orphanage directors hoped that audiences would be dazzled by the orphans’ musical performances so that they would
a. adopt the talented children.
b. buy tickets to their performances.
c. help find jobs for the orphans.
d. donate money to the orphanages.
Answer: d page 710 LO: 21.3
25. Why is Antonio Vivaldi’s The Four Seasons known as program music?
a. He composed it for one of the orphans’ performances, or programs.
b. Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea.
c. Its episodes contrast back and forth with the musical score.
d. The music follows the program and rhythms of speech.
Answer: b page 710 LO: 21.3
26. Baroque compositions such as The Four Seasons are perhaps most distinguishable from their Renaissance predecessors because of their
a. solo passages.
b. trio sonatas.
Answer: d page 708 LO: 21.3
27. Louis XIV rejected Gianlorenzo Bernini’s Baroque design for a new façade for the Louvre, finding it too
a. similar to the Vatican colonnade.
b. simple and classical.
c. expensive to build.
d. elaborate and ornate.
Answer: d page 711 LO: 21.3
28. Gianlorenzo Bernini a. Canzona Duodecimi Toni
29. John Donne b. Conversion of Saint Paul
30. Caravaggio c. “The Flea”
31. Giovanni Gabrieli d. Inundation of the Tiber
32. Artemesia Gentileschi e. The Four Seasons
33. Claudio Monteverdi f. Judith and Maidservant with Head of Holofernes
34. Andrea Pozzo g. Orfeo
35. Antonio Vivaldi h. Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius
Answers: 28-d (LO: 21.1), 29-c (LO: 21.2), 30-b (LO: 21.2), 31-a (LO: 21.3), 32-f (LO: 21.2), 33-g (LO: 21.3), 34-h (LO: 21.1), 35-e (LO: 21.3)
36. Describe Bernini’s colonnade enclosure of Vatican Square, and explain how it defines the Baroque style. LO: 21.1
37. Identify and describe three elements of Bernini’s Cornaro Chapel sculptural program that illustrate the high drama of the Baroque. LO: 21.1
38. Compare Bernini’s Baroque David to Michelangelo’s Renaissance David (Chap. 14), explaining how each is representative of its respective period. LO: 21.1
39. Compare Andrea Pozzo’s Baroque Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius to Michelangelo’s Mannerist Last Judgment (Chap. 20), explaining how each is representative of its respective period. LO: 21.1
40. Define “tenebrism,” and explain Caravaggio’s use of it to provide drama in two of his
works. LO: 21.2
41. Compare the sensual elements of Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa to Caravaggio’s Conversion of Saint Paul and Donne’s “Batter My Heart.” LO: 21.1 & 21.2
42. List and analyze at least two reasons for Artemisia Gentileschi’s use of her self-portrait for Judith in her five paintings of the Jewish heroine’s story. LO: 21.2
43. List and explain two ways Giovanni Gabrieli made church music more emotionally
engaging. LO: 21.3
44. Provide a detailed explanation for the reasons opera developed during the Italian Baroque period. LO: 21.3
45. Using one sculpture, one painting, and one musical composition, explain the artists’ achievement of Baroque drama—the sense of action, excitement, and sensuality. LO: 21.1,
21.2, & 21.3
Chapter 22: The Secular Baroque in the North:
The Art of Observation
1. Which of the following is NOT a contradiction of seventeenth-century Amsterdam residents?
a. They advocated harmony with others, yet viciously warred with the French.
b. They avidly collected art for homes, yet banned art in churches.
c. They were intolerant of religious heresy among Protestants, yet tolerant of Catholics
d. They were obsessed with acquisition of material goods, yet rigidly austere in religious life.
Answer: a page 716 LO: 22.1