Test Bank for Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education, Canadian Edition

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Test Bank for Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education, Canadian Edition

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Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education

CHAPTER 2 Current Trends and Issues

2.1 Multiple Choice

1) The integration of individuals with exceptionalities is best characterised as
A) a trend promoted by a small radical group.
B) a trend promoted by most educators to varying degrees.
C) a trend with it’s origins in the late 1990s.
D) a trend which is becoming less popular over time.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 43
Topic: Collaboration and Participation in General Ed.
Skill: Knowledge

2) Three major trends in the field of special education are
A) early intervention, integration, and transition.
B) prevention, integration, and labelling.
C) labelling, early intervention, and prevention.
D) transition, mainstreaming, and handicapism.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 32
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Knowledge

3) All of the following practices promote integration EXCEPT
A) normalization.
B) institutionalization.
C) full inclusion.
D) mainstreaming.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 32-34
Topic: Integration into Society
Skill: Comprehension

4) Which one of the following provides the best description of normalization?
A) the theory that exceptionalities are a matter of social perceptions and values
B) the belief that people with exceptionalities should have experiences as similar as possible to those of people without exceptionalities
C) the principle that schools should educate all students in the regular classroom, regardless of the nature of their exceptionalities
D) the philosophy that students with exceptionalities should be educated in the environment that will allow them to achieve their maximum potential as adults
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 32
Topic: Normalization
Skill: Knowledge
5) A concern regarding the expanding use of technology to assist individuals with exceptionalities is that
A) it may work against the goal of normalization.
B) it does not improve accessibility.
C) it provokes envy from those without exceptionalities.
D) technologies may replace human support.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 32
Topic: Normalization
Skill: Comprehension

6) All of the following are controversies about the implementation of normalization EXCEPT
A) the government is concerned about increasing tax support to a special interest group.
B) the phrase “as culturally normative as possible” is open to interpretation.
C) some groups of people with exceptionalities are leery about being too integrated with nondisabled society.
D) some people are concerned that individuals with exceptionalities might be too quick to rely on technology instead of working to improve their own abilities.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 32-33
Topic: Normalization
Skill: Comprehension

7) When did deinstitutionalization begin?
A) 1900s
B) 1950s
C) 1960s
D) 1980s
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 33
Topic: Deinstitutionalization
Skill: Knowledge
8) Deinstitutionalization refers to the movement away from
A) placement in large residential facilities.
B) government responsibility for providing services for people with exceptionalities.
C) placement in small, community facilities.
D) parental responsibility for the care of children with exceptionalities.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 33
Topic: Deinstitutionalization
Skill: Knowledge
9) With reference to institutionalization of individuals with exceptionalities, the Canadian Association for Community Living argues that
A) institutionalization is a form of incarceration.
B) some forms of institutionalization are beneficial.
C) for many individuals, institutions provide the highest level of care.
D) institutions are inappropriate placements as they are prohibitively expensive.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 33
Topic: Deinstitutionalization
Skill: Comprehension

10) Less restrictive alternatives to placement in residential institutions include all of the following EXCEPT
A) halfway houses.
B) group homes.
C) psychiatric hospitals.
D) competitive employment.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 33
Topic: Deinstitutionalization
Skill: Comprehension

11) The ability to make personal choices and regulate one’s own life is known as
A) self-concept.
B) self-awareness.
C) self-control.
D) self-determination.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 33
Topic: Self-Determination
Skill: Knowledge
12) Self-determination can be encouraged in schools in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A) creating environments that allow for students to practice skills.
B) asking students for input into important decisions.
C) teaching self-determination skills directly.
D) inviting parents to make decisions for their children.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 34
Topic: Self-Determination
Skill: Comprehension
13) All of the following statements about self-determination are true EXCEPT
A) services to people with exceptionalities should be based upon their dreams and interests.
B) other people, such as psychologists, physicians, and teachers should make important decisions for people with exceptionalities.
C) self-determination is learned and can be taught.
D) the idea of self-determination is culturally embedded.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 33
Topic: Self-Determination
Skill: Knowledge

14) Which one of the following is a component of most full inclusion models?
A) Students attend the school within their district that has the best facilities, regardless of its proximity to their home.
B) All schools offer a continuum of special education placements, ranging from self-contained classes to full-time regular education.
C) Placements are made according to developmental readiness rather than chronological age.
D) Special education supports are provided within the regular classroom.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 34
Topic: Full-Inclusion
Skill: Comprehension

15) The term referring to the best practice that exceptional children must be educated in as normal an environment as possible is
A) least restrictive environment.
B) normalization.
C) free appropriate public education.
D) continuum of alternative placements.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 35
Topic: Full-Inclusion vs. Continuum of Alternative Placements
Skill: Knowledge
16) According to Hallahan and Kauffman, advocates of full inclusion favour the elimination of which educational placement practice?
A) least restrictive environment
B) individualized educational plan
C) continuum of alternative placements
D) free appropriate public education
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 35
Topic: Full-Inclusion vs. Continuum of Alternative Placements
Skill: Comprehension
17) The rationale for full inclusion is based on at least four premises. One premise is that
A) people with exceptionalities should not be viewed as a minority group.
B) pull-out programs in special education have been ineffective.
C) research should take precedence over philosophy or ethics.
D) labelling is an efficient way of allocating services to those students who need them most.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 35
Topic: Full-Inclusion vs. Continuum of Alternative Placements
Skill: Comprehension

18) According to Hallahan and Kauffman, labels may make people without exceptionalities more tolerant of those with exceptionalities by
A) making people without exceptionalities feel sorry for those with exceptionalities.
B) making people with exceptionalities a special interest group that can demand respect.
C) providing explanations for differences in appearance or behaviour.
D) providing the government with a way to create laws requiring tolerance.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 36
Topic: Labelling
Skill: Comprehension

19) All of the following may be used to defend the use of labels EXCEPT
A) People are less likely to expect deviant behaviour from labelled individuals.
B) Labels may provide explanations for differences in appearance or behaviour.
C) The elimination of one set of labels only prompts development of another set.
D) Labels help professionals communicate with one another.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 36
Topic: Labelling
Skill: Comprehension
20) Opponents of pull-out programs cite studies indicating that, in comparison to students with exceptionalities remaining in the regular classroom, students in more-segregated placements perform
A) higher on both social and cognitive measures.
B) higher on cognitive measures, but lower on social measures.
C) lower or about the same on cognitive and social measures.
D) lower on cognitive measures, but higher on social measures.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 37
Topic: Ineffectiveness of Separate Special Education
Skill: Knowledge
21) Factors that may make it difficult to draw conclusions from the research evaluating the effectiveness of separate pull-out programs include all of the following EXCEPT
A) the varying quality of instructional practices used in pull-out programs.
B) the heterogeneity of students placed in pull-out programs.
C) the heterogeneity of placements classified as “pull-out”.
D) the lack of research available.
Answer: D
Diff: 4 Type: MC Page Ref: 37
Topic: Ineffectiveness of Separate Special Education
Skill: Synthesis

22) Advocates who view people with exceptionalities as a minority emphasize the
A) need to change societal attitudes.
B) importance of remediating functional deficits.
C) need to maintain the full continuum of special education services.
D) importance of helping students “fit-in” at school.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 38
Topic: People With Exceptionalities as a Minority
Skill: Knowledge

23) Handicapism is a set of assumptions and practices that promotes
A) improvement of conditions for people with exceptionalities, regardless of the cost to society.
B) differential or unequal treatment of people with exceptionalities.
C) the view that exceptionalities are a matter of social perceptions and values, rather than characteristics inherent to the individual.
D) full inclusion of people with exceptionalities in all aspects of society.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 38
Topic: People With Exceptionalities as a Minority
Skill: Knowledge
24) Which of the following are NOT activities of the disability rights movement?
A) Lobbying employers on behalf of individuals with exceptionalities.
B) Lobbying government to promote the rights of individuals with exceptionalities.
C) Criticizing the media for representing people with exceptionalities in inaccurate ways.
D) Representing the views of all individuals with exceptionalities.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 38
Topic: People With Exceptionalities as a Minority
Skill: Comprehension
25) Many full inclusionists view integration as necessary based on
A) law.
B) ethics.
C) research evidence.
D) school funding.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 39
Topic: Arguments Against Full Inclusion
Skill: Knowledge

26) In the debate involving ethics and empiricism, the most vocal proponents of the full-inclusion model
A) reject available research evidence against pull-out programs.
B) regard comparative data of full inclusion versus separate programs as irrelevant.
C) emphasize the importance of research over philosophy.
D) urge us to strike a balance between ethics and empiricism.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 39
Topic: Ethics
Skill: Comprehension

27) Critics of full inclusion have put forward all of the following arguments against full inclusion EXCEPT
A) research does not support full inclusion for everyone.
B) parents are satisfied with the present system of special education.
C) regular educators are often unwilling or unable to teach students with exceptionalities.
D) students without exceptionalities do not want to be in the same class as students with exceptionalities.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Ref: 39
Topic: Arguments Against Full Inclusion
Skill: Comprehension
28) Repeated polls, surveys, and interviews have indicated that the majority of parents of students with exceptionalities, as well as students themselves, were
A) dissatisfied with the special education system and placement options.
B) satisfied with the special education system and placement options.
C) dissatisfied with the special education system and satisfied with placement options.
D) satisfied with the special education system and dissatisfied with placement options.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 39
Topic: Satisfaction with Continuum of Placements
Skill: Knowledge
29) In a synthesis of over two dozen surveys of general educators’ views on integrating students with exceptionalities into their classes,
A) the majority felt that they could integrate students successfully given their current time, skills, training, and resources.
B) about two-thirds said they would be opposed to integration under any circumstances.
C) about one-fourth to one-third thought they had sufficient time, skills, training, and resources to integrate students successfully.
D) the majority said that they would support integration under any circumstances because it is the most ethical thing to do.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 40
Topic: Attitudes of General Educators
Skill: Knowledge

30) Each of the following is a basic strategy for helping students with exceptionalities to participate in the general education classroom EXCEPT
A) homogeneous grouping.
B) prereferral teams.
C) collaborative consultation.
D) curriculum and instruction modifications.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 43
Topic: Collaboration and Participation in General Ed.
Skill: Knowledge

31) Parents of students with severe exceptionalities favour inclusive settings because
A) They are less expensive than separate programs.
B) They offer academic and social benefits for their children.
C) They require less homework than separate programs.
D) Students don’t have to travel as far to attend as they would for separate programs.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Type: MC Page Ref: 41
Topic: Parents’ Thoughts on Inclusion
Skill: Comprehension

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