Test Bank for Essentials of The Living World 4th Edition George Johnson Download

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Test Bank for Essentials of The Living World 4th Edition George Johnson Download

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Title: Test Bank for Essentials of The Living World 4th Edition George Johnson Download

Edition: 4th Edition

ISBN-10: 0073525472

ISBN-13: 978-0073525471

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Chapter 03 Test Bank
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Which level of protein structure ultimately determines all the other levels of structure?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
2. Hydrogen bonds between different parts of the polypeptide chain result in which level of protein structure?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
3. The final three-dimensional shape of a protein is its ____________ structure.

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
4. When a protein is composed of more than one polypeptide chain, the arrangement of the chains is called the ____________ structure.

A. primary

B. secondary

C. tertiary

D. quaternary
5. Enzymes function to

A. add structural support.

B. provide defense.

C. transport molecules.

D. make chemical reactions more like to occur.
6. The ?-helix and ?-pleated sheet are examples of which level of protein structure?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
7. When a protein is denatured, which level of protein structure is unaffected?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
8. Which polymer serves as the information storage molecule for cells?

A. Carbohydrate

B. Nucleic acid

C. Protein

D. Lipids
9. If one strand is CCAATTG on DNA then the complementary chain is

A. CCAATTG.

B. AAGGUUC.

C. GGUUAAC.

D. GGTTAAC.

E. It is impossible to determine.
10. The bases of the two DNA chains are linked in the middle of the molecule by _________ bonds.

A. covalent

B. ionic

C. hydrogen

D. There are no bonds connecting the chains.
11. Which of the following is not true?

A. There are 20 common amino acids that make up proteins.

B. The amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine and the amount of cytosine equals the amount of guanine.

C. Lipids are not water soluble.

D. The ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:2:1 in carbohydrates.

E. Macromolecules are formed by hydrolysis reactions.
12. The carbohydrate that plants use to store energy is called

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. fructose.

D. sucrose.

E. chitin.
13. The carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls is

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. chitin.

D. fructose.

E. sucrose.
14. A polysaccharide of glucose found in animals that is highly branched is

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. chitin.

D. glycogen.

E. sucrose.
15. The external skeleton of many invertebrates is made of

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. chitin.

D. glycogen.

E. sucrose.
16. Fats composed of fatty acids that have double bonds in the fatty acids and have fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are

A. saturated.

B. liquids at room temperature.

C. solid at room temperature.

D. generally found in animal fats.
17. Which of the following is incorrect about saturated fats?

A. They are solid at room temperature.

B. They contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.

C. They contain glycerol plus 3 fatty acids.

D. They are nonpolar molecules that don’t mix with water.

E. They are generally the type of fat found in plants.
18. All of the following are lipids except

A. waxes.

B. cholesterol.

C. female sex hormones.

D. phospholipids.

E. glycogen.
19. Which of the following is a main component of cell membranes?

A. Cellulose

B. Sucrose

C. Phospholipids

D. Triglycerides

E. Glycogen
20. The sugar found in RNA is

A. lactose.

B. glucose.

C. ribose.

D. deoxyribose.

E. glycogen.
21. Which is incorrect about proteins?

A. The main function of proteins is energy storage.

B. Proteins can be enzymes.

C. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.

D. The sequence of amino acids determines the primary structure of the protein.

E. Some proteins have a transport function.
22. The building blocks of carbohydrates are

A. amino acids.

B. polypeptides.

C. monosaccharides.

D. nucleotides.
23. Animals store energy in a polymer composed of many glucose molecules called

A. starch.

B. glycogen.

C. cellulose.

D. chitin.
24. Fatty acids that contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible are said to be

A. polyunsaturated.

B. monounsaturated.

C. saturated.

D. phospholipids.
25. Proteins are made up of ____________ strung together by _________ bonds.

A. amino acids; peptide

B. monosaccharides; nucleotide

C. monomers; ionic

D. polymers; hydrogen
26. Making and breaking molecules in the body require the aid of ____________ to help the reactions proceed.

A. heat

B. water

C. blood

D. enzymes
27. Glucose is a type of carbohydrate called _____________.

A. a polysaccharide

B. a disaccharide

C. a monosaccharide

D. a nucleotide
28. Choose the statement that is true about DNA.

A. It exhibits base pairing.

B. It forms a double helix.

C. It is a polymer of nucleotides.

D. All of these are correct.
29. All of the following are ways RNA differs from DNA except

A. RNA is single stranded.

B. RNA is a nucleic acid.

C. RNA contains ribose.

D. RNA contains uracil.
30. Denaturation of proteins is always a reversible process.

True False

31. Lipids are insoluble in water because they are nonpolar.

True False

32. Unsaturated fats are usually solid at room temperature.

True False

33. The sequence of nucleotides in DNA specifies the sequence of ________________ in a protein.

________________________________________

34. In RNA, thymine is replaced with ___________.

________________________________________

35. A __________ bond links two amino acids together.

________________________________________

36. Nucleic acids are long polymers of repeating subunits called ___________.

________________________________________

37. The polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants is ___________.

________________________________________

38. Many mammals supply energy to their young in the form of ___________.

________________________________________

39. List the four major types of macromolecules, their subunits (building blocks), and their functions.

40. Compare saturated and unsaturated fats with regard to source, structure, and consistency.

41. Describe the four levels of protein structure and how they are affected by denaturation.

42. Describe five functions of proteins.

43. Describe the structure of DNA.
Chapter 03 Test Bank Key

1. Which level of protein structure ultimately determines all the other levels of structure?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.03 Describe the four general levels of protein structure, and how the polar nature of water influences them.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

2. Hydrogen bonds between different parts of the polypeptide chain result in which level of protein structure?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.03 Describe the four general levels of protein structure, and how the polar nature of water influences them.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

3. The final three-dimensional shape of a protein is its ____________ structure.

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.03 Describe the four general levels of protein structure, and how the polar nature of water influences them.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

4. When a protein is composed of more than one polypeptide chain, the arrangement of the chains is called the ____________ structure.

A. primary

B. secondary

C. tertiary

D. quaternary
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.03 Describe the four general levels of protein structure, and how the polar nature of water influences them.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

5. Enzymes function to

A. add structural support.

B. provide defense.

C. transport molecules.

D. make chemical reactions more like to occur.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.05 Describe how the structure of an enzyme enables it to catalyze a chemical reaction.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

6. The ?-helix and ?-pleated sheet are examples of which level of protein structure?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.03 Describe the four general levels of protein structure, and how the polar nature of water influences them.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

7. When a protein is denatured, which level of protein structure is unaffected?

A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.02.04 Explain the forces that cause a protein to denature.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

8. Which polymer serves as the information storage molecule for cells?

A. Carbohydrate

B. Nucleic acid

C. Protein

D. Lipids
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.03.02 State the two major chemical differences between DNA and RNA.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

9. If one strand is CCAATTG on DNA then the complementary chain is

A. CCAATTG.

B. AAGGUUC.

C. GGUUAAC.

D. GGTTAAC.

E. It is impossible to determine.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.03.03 Identify what two base pairings are possible in DNA, and explain why the other four potential base pairings do not occur.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

10. The bases of the two DNA chains are linked in the middle of the molecule by _________ bonds.

A. covalent

B. ionic

C. hydrogen

D. There are no bonds connecting the chains.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.03.03 Identify what two base pairings are possible in DNA, and explain why the other four potential base pairings do not occur.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

11. Which of the following is not true?

A. There are 20 common amino acids that make up proteins.

B. The amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine and the amount of cytosine equals the amount of guanine.

C. Lipids are not water soluble.

D. The ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:2:1 in carbohydrates.

E. Macromolecules are formed by hydrolysis reactions.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.01
Topic: Chemistry

12. The carbohydrate that plants use to store energy is called

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. fructose.

D. sucrose.

E. chitin.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

13. The carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls is

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. chitin.

D. fructose.

E. sucrose.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

14. A polysaccharide of glucose found in animals that is highly branched is

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. chitin.

D. glycogen.

E. sucrose.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

15. The external skeleton of many invertebrates is made of

A. starch.

B. cellulose.

C. chitin.

D. glycogen.

E. sucrose.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

16. Fats composed of fatty acids that have double bonds in the fatty acids and have fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are

A. saturated.

B. liquids at room temperature.

C. solid at room temperature.

D. generally found in animal fats.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

17. Which of the following is incorrect about saturated fats?

A. They are solid at room temperature.

B. They contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.

C. They contain glycerol plus 3 fatty acids.

D. They are nonpolar molecules that don’t mix with water.

E. They are generally the type of fat found in plants.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

18. All of the following are lipids except

A. waxes.

B. cholesterol.

C. female sex hormones.

D. phospholipids.

E. glycogen.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

19. Which of the following is a main component of cell membranes?

A. Cellulose

B. Sucrose

C. Phospholipids

D. Triglycerides

E. Glycogen
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

20. The sugar found in RNA is

A. lactose.

B. glucose.

C. ribose.

D. deoxyribose.

E. glycogen.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.03.02 State the two major chemical differences between DNA and RNA.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

21. Which is incorrect about proteins?

A. The main function of proteins is energy storage.

B. Proteins can be enzymes.

C. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.

D. The sequence of amino acids determines the primary structure of the protein.

E. Some proteins have a transport function.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.02.02 Diagram the structure of an amino acid, and the formation of a peptide bond.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

22. The building blocks of carbohydrates are

A. amino acids.

B. polypeptides.

C. monosaccharides.

D. nucleotides.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.01.01 Distinguish between a polymer and a monomer.
Section: 03.01
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

23. Animals store energy in a polymer composed of many glucose molecules called

A. starch.

B. glycogen.

C. cellulose.

D. chitin.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

24. Fatty acids that contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible are said to be

A. polyunsaturated.

B. monounsaturated.

C. saturated.

D. phospholipids.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

25. Proteins are made up of ____________ strung together by _________ bonds.

A. amino acids; peptide

B. monosaccharides; nucleotide

C. monomers; ionic

D. polymers; hydrogen
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.02 Diagram the structure of an amino acid, and the formation of a peptide bond.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

26. Making and breaking molecules in the body require the aid of ____________ to help the reactions proceed.

A. heat

B. water

C. blood

D. enzymes
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.01.02 Contrast hydrolysis with dehydration synthesis.
Section: 03.01
Topic: Chemistry

27. Glucose is a type of carbohydrate called _____________.

A. a polysaccharide

B. a disaccharide

C. a monosaccharide

D. a nucleotide
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

28. Choose the statement that is true about DNA.

A. It exhibits base pairing.

B. It forms a double helix.

C. It is a polymer of nucleotides.

D. All of these are correct.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.03.03 Identify what two base pairings are possible in DNA, and explain why the other four potential base pairings do not occur.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

29. All of the following are ways RNA differs from DNA except

A. RNA is single stranded.

B. RNA is a nucleic acid.

C. RNA contains ribose.

D. RNA contains uracil.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.03.02 State the two major chemical differences between DNA and RNA.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

30. Denaturation of proteins is always a reversible process.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.02.04 Explain the forces that cause a protein to denature.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

31. Lipids are insoluble in water because they are nonpolar.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

32. Unsaturated fats are usually solid at room temperature.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

33. The sequence of nucleotides in DNA specifies the sequence of ________________ in a protein.

amino acids

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.03.01 Name the three parts of a nucleotide.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

34. In RNA, thymine is replaced with ___________.

uracil

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.03.02 State the two major chemical differences between DNA and RNA.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

35. A __________ bond links two amino acids together.

peptide

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.02 Diagram the structure of an amino acid, and the formation of a peptide bond.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

36. Nucleic acids are long polymers of repeating subunits called ___________.

nucleotides

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.03.01 Name the three parts of a nucleotide.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

37. The polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants is ___________.

cellulose

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

38. Many mammals supply energy to their young in the form of ___________.

lactose

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.04.01 Define carbohydrate. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section: 03.04
Topic: Chemistry

39. List the four major types of macromolecules, their subunits (building blocks), and their functions.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.01.01 Distinguish between a polymer and a monomer.
Section: 03.01
Topic: Chemistry

40. Compare saturated and unsaturated fats with regard to source, structure, and consistency.
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 03.05.01 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats, and explain why one is a solid and the other a liquid at room temperature.
Section: 03.05
Topic: Chemistry

41. Describe the four levels of protein structure and how they are affected by denaturation.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.04 Explain the forces that cause a protein to denature.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

42. Describe five functions of proteins.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.02.01 Explain what proteins do by listing five functional groupings of proteins.
Section: 03.02
Topic: Chemistry

43. Describe the structure of DNA.
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 03.03.02 State the two major chemical differences between DNA and RNA.
Section: 03.03
Topic: Chemistry

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