Test bank for Consumer Behavior 11e by Michael R. Solomon 9780133472233

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Test bank for Consumer Behavior 11e by Michael R. Solomon 9780133472233

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Consumer Behavior, 11e (Solomon)
Chapter 3 Cultural Influences on Consumer Decision-Making

1) Culture is best described as society’s ________.
A) attitude
B) consciousness
C) personality
D) history
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

2) Which functional area of culture is most closely related to the idea of a common worldview?
A) ecology
B) social structure
C) ideology
D) socio-psychology
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

3) ________ usually dictate what is right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable.
A) Myths
B) Theories
C) Norms
D) Rituals
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

4) Crescive norms are ________.
A) strict “must do” rules of behavior in a society
B) followed only by the females of a culture
C) associated with monetary rewards and punishments
D) subtle rules discovered as we interact with others
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2
5) We explicitly decide on ________ norms, such as the rule that a green traffic light means “go” and a red one means “stop.”
A) crescive
B) enacted
C) reciprocal
D) ritualized
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2
AACSB: Application of knowledge

6) A ________ is a custom with a strong moral overtone.
A) more
B) superstition
C) convention
D) monomyth
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

7) Interest in the occult is most likely to increase in a society when ________.
A) economic conditions begin to improve
B) there has been a major triumph, such as winning a war
C) people feel overwhelmed or powerless
D) people become less religious
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

8) A story containing symbolic elements that express the shared emotions and ideals of a culture is called a ________.
A) norm
B) ritual
C) myth
D) more
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5
9) Myths serve four interrelated functions in a culture. All of the following are among those functions EXCEPT the ________ function.
A) cosmological
B) sociological
C) psychological
D) anthropological
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5

10) ________ postulated that myths involve binary opposition, in which two opposing ends of some dimension are represented (such as good versus evil).
A) Levi-Strauss
B) Freud
C) Hofstede
D) Bettelheim
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-5

11) A set of multiple symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and tend to be repeated is called a ________.
A) myth
B) more
C) ritual
D) convention
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

12) Brands that we closely link to our rituals are called ________ brands; once they become imbedded in our rituals we are unlikely to replace them.
A) fighter
B) fortress
C) transcultural
D) sacralized
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6
13) Grooming rituals express two kinds of binary opposition: private/public and ________.
A) work/leisure
B) self/others
C) pride/modesty
D) innocence/experience
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

14) Researchers primarily see the gift-giving ritual as one of ________ exchange.
A) transactional
B) stylistic
C) psychological
D) economic
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

15) Which of the following is NOT one of the three distinct stages of gift-giving rituals?
A) convention
B) gestation
C) presentation
D) reformulation
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

16) As a relationship grows and progresses, gift giving tends to become more ________.
A) exchange oriented
B) reciprocal
C) altruistic
D) reformulated
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6
17) A special ritual marking a person’s change in social status is called a ________.
A) convention
B) sacralization
C) cycle
D) rite of passage
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-6

18) ________ consumption occurs with objects and events that are considered to be ordinary and everyday.
A) Profane
B) Sacred
C) Objectified
D) Ritualized
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7

19) Through the process of ________, objects associated with sacred events or people become sacred in their own right.
A) congregation
B) reciprocity
C) desacralization
D) contamination
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

20) The systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects is called ________.
A) prioritizing
B) hoarding
C) collecting
D) ritualizing
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7
21) When a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities, then it becomes profane as a result of ________.
A) sacralization
B) desacralization
C) defamation
D) objectification
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-7
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

22) It is quite common for mainstream culture to modify symbols identified with “cutting edge” subcultures and present these to a larger audience. Such cultural products undergo a process of ________, by which their original meanings are transformed by outsiders.
A) innovation
B) transformation
C) diffusion
D) cooptation
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

23) All of the following are subsystems in a culture production system EXCEPT ________.
A) creative subsystem
B) managerial subsystem
C) marketing subsystem
D) communications subsystem
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

24) Products are winnowed out as they make their way down the path from conception to consumption, a process called ________.
A) diffusion
B) cooptation
C) cultural selection
D) cultural mapping
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
25) Which of the following statements is most likely true about styles?
A) A style typically starts in a large group of people as a safe but unique statement.
B) Styles are often a reflection of more fundamental societal trends.
C) Influential people play only a minor role in deciding which styles will succeed.
D) Styles most often result from a deliberate statement from ordinary consumers that has been met by a rather spontaneous response from designers.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3

26) In the cultural production process, the people who control the flow of information between producers and customers are called ________.
A) lead users
B) cultural gatekeepers
C) cultural transformers
D) innovators
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

27) Which of the following is an object that is admired strictly for its beauty or because it inspires an emotional reaction?
A) an art product
B) a reality-engineered product
C) a craft product
D) a trial product
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-3

28) ________ occurs as marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and convert them for use as promotional vehicles.
A) Reality engineering
B) Crescive norming
C) Desacralization
D) Product placement
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

29) Promoters attempt to have their products shown prominently in full-length films. This type of promotion is referred to as ________.
A) desacralization
B) objectification
C) product placement
D) advertainment
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-4

30) Which functional area is consistently a part of a cultural system?
A) ecology
B) anthropology
C) psychology
D) technology
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

31) The aspect of a cultural system which describes the mental characteristics of a people and the way they relate to their environment and social groups is known as ________.
A) ecology
B) social structure
C) ideology
D) anthropology
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

32) The Japanese greatly value products that make efficient use of space because of the cramped conditions in urban areas in Japan. This is an example of ________ in Japan’s cultural system.
A) social structure
B) ecology
C) ideology
D) dogma
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Application of knowledge
33) What do we call the learning process when we learn the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by our own culture?
A) acculturation
B) enculturation
C) immersion
D) modeling
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Concept
Objective: 3-2

34) Gen Akoi greatly values his micro-refrigerator. The refrigerator is so small it will fit almost anywhere. Gen believes that the efficient use of space is one of the characteristics any good product should have. With respect to the functional areas of a cultural system, Gen is focusing on ________ as a variable in selecting his products.
A) ideology
B) ecology
C) social structure
D) socio-psychology
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Analytical thinking

35) J. P. Stevens always looks perfect in his business suit. The colors are always right for the season and prevailing style. His tie has the proper knot, he does not wear a tie-tac, his handkerchief is the proper “two-fingers” above the pocket, and his socks and shoes do not distract from his overall look. Which of the following does J. P. seem to be adhering to with his “correctness”?
A) enacted behaviors
B) customs
C) mores
D) conventions
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-1
AACSB: Analytical thinking
36) The story goes that George Washington (as a small child) cut down his father’s cherry tree with a hatchet. When asked who might have committed this act (even though young Washington was afraid of punishment for the act), George replied, “I cannot tell a lie; I cut down the cherry tree.” This story has taken on mythical proportions in the United States. Which of the following functions does this myth best match?
A) metaphysical
B) cosmological
C) psychological
D) anthropological
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-5
AACSB: Application of knowledge

37) Pavel was an inventor. He read that there were several million people who could not sleep at night until they looked under the bed. He invented a light that could be put under a bed and went on automatically when someone looked there. Pavel’s product is designed to help people perform a ________.
A) ritual
B) symbolic exchange
C) convention
D) rite of passage
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Learning Outcome: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior.
Skill: Application
Objective: 3-6
AACSB: Analytical thinking

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