Social Science An Introduction to the Study of Society 15th Edition Hunt Colander Test Bank

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Social Science An Introduction to the Study of Society 15th Edition Hunt Colander Test Bank

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ISBN-10: 0205971458

ISBN-13: 9780205971459 978-0205971459

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1) Scientific knowledge is knowledge that has been:
A) systematically gathered, classified, related, and interpreted.
B) rediscovered and cherished as dogma.
C) found to be in agreement with popular opinion.
D) tested until it is perfect and then retained unchanged forever.
Answer: A
Ref: 1
Diff: 2

2) This is the field of human knowledge that deals with all aspects of the group life of human beings.
A) scientific knowledge.
B) humanities
C) natural science
D) social science
Answer: D
Ref: 2
Diff: 3

3) Social science and natural science are both scientific but different in focus because:
A) natural science deals with the spiritual values of nature.
B) social science deals with all aspects of the group life of humans.
C) social science deals with matter and energy.
D) natural science does not deal with living things.
Answer: B
Ref: 2
Diff: 3

4) Which of the following is NOT included in cognitive science?
A) Economics
B) Psychology
C) Linguistics
D) Social anthropology
Answer: A
Ref: 4
Diff: 2

5) There are many different social science disciplines with varying approaches but in understanding modern problems social scientists need to know:
A) which discipline is the best.
B) less about the past.
C) more about their own specialty.
D) how the social sciences interrelate.
Answer: D
Ref: 4
Diff: 2
6) Anthropology is the study of the relationship between:
A) environment and trading systems.
B) biological traits and socially acquired characteristics.
C) physics and biology.
D) marketing strategies and geography (climate and resource allocation systems).
Answer: B
Ref: 5
Diff: 1

7) Some of the concerns of geography are ecology, climate, resources, and:
A) individual emotions.
B) demography.
C) monetary policy.
D) the theory of the state.
Answer: B
Ref: 7
Diff: 1

8) Scientific inquiry is possible in a society in which certain attitudes are developed and tolerated. These attitudes include curiosity, objectivity, and:
A) aggression.
B) accessibility.
C) skepticism.
D) complacency.
Answer: C
Ref: 8
Diff: 2

9) Modern science is based on the assumption that:
A) this is an orderly universe.
B) cause and effect are not important.
C) all phenomena are simple.
D) there are only two scientific laws.
Answer: A
Ref: 8
Diff: 2

10) In the social sciences, very little use can be made of controlled experiments because the investigator:
A) cannot control the situations.
B) does not need this method.
C) knows too much about human behavior.
D) must not be part of the experiment.
Answer: A
Ref: 9
Diff: 1
11) Thomas Kuhn argued that scientific progression occurs by paradigm shifts. A paradigm is:
A) a scientific method and the technology that supports it.
B) a scientific record keeping method.
C) a scientific theory and the core of beliefs that surround it.
D) a way of understanding without evidence.
Answer: C
Ref: 11
Diff: 2

12) The study of social arrangements to maintain peace and order within a given society is called:
A) economics.
B) anthropology.
C) geography.
D) political science.
Answer: D
Ref: 11
Diff: 1

13) Which of the following is NOT one of the nine steps of scientific research outlined in your text:
A) defining the problem before drawing conclusion.
B) reviewing the literature.
C) determining a time frame.
D) analyzing the results.
Answer: C
Ref: 13
Diff: 2

14) Joseph Holz’s study of the implications of teen pregnancy concluded that whether or not mothers had borne a child in their teens made:
A) a major difference in their economic and social positions.
B) little difference in their economic and social positions.
C) a difference which was received well by conservatives.
D) a difference which was popular with both liberals and conservatives.
Answer: B
Ref: 14
Diff: 3

15) The functionalist theory approach emphasizes:
A) how society reflects individuals’ desires.
B) social reality as being more what people think and feel rather than actions.
C) energy procurement.
D) the interconnectedness of social life.
Answer: D
Ref: 14
Diff: 2
16) Functionalist, conflict, exchange, and symbolic interaction are four major theoretical approaches that are:
A) mutually exclusive as theoretical approaches.
B) used together as a combined approach instead of being used separately.
C) necessarily independent of each other.
D) sometimes used in combination to study problems.
Answer: D
Ref: 15
Diff: 2

17) The social science method that involves making a detailed examination and analysis of a particular issue or problem situation is called the:
A) comparative method.
B) case method.
C) historical method.
D) cross-cultural method.
Answer: B
Ref: 15
Diff: 1

18) Educated common sense:
A) has no place in science.
B) has been important in the past but is unnecessary today.
C) is important in the social sciences.
D) is better than any rules about science.
Answer: C
Ref: 16
Diff: 2

19) The “Delphic method” refers to:
A) social scientists having their interpretations reviewed by other specialists in the field.
B) social scientists having the freedom to make assumptions without peer review.
C) asking others outside of the social sciences to review ones interpretations.
D) drawing a conclusion only after a panel of recognized specialists agree it is valid.
Answer: A
Ref: 17
Diff: 1

20) Social scientists find statistics useful because of the:
A) possible insights into social problems and relationships.
B) ability to measure social welfare.
C) self-evident nature of statistical data.
D) lack of a necessity to interpret statistics.
Answer: A
Ref: 17
Diff: 2
21) The Interdisciplinary Approach means:
A) there is no need for separate social sciences.
B) a group of scientists with different specialties work together on a common problem.
C) we will never need a unified social science.
D) all problems can be solved quickly.
Answer: B
Ref: 19
Diff: 3

22) Language is important in the communication of social scientific knowledge. Social scientists are aware that language:
A) should require layers of translation.
B) used in high theory must, of necessity, include specialty-specific jargon to enhance understanding.
C) embodies value judgments and preserves ways of looking at things.
D) used to convey brilliant ideas will be complex.
Answer: C
Ref: 21
Diff: 3

23) The Enlightenment established the “three humiliations” of human beings. These include:
A) the earth is the center of the universe.
B) we are not creatures of nature like other animals.
C) humans cannot guide or direct social change.
D) our reasoning ability is subject to passions and subconscious desires.
Answer: D
Ref: 24
Diff: 2

24) Since its conception, social science has entwined two aspects. Sometimes it is simply trying to achieve a limited understanding of our place in the cosmos, and at other times it is trying to:
A) finalize an unlimited complete explanation of human total reality.
B) evolve into a theology of human behavior.
C) change society.
D) become a physical science.
Answer: C
Ref: 25
Diff: 2

25) During the Enlightenment people began to believe that society and culture are themselves the products of history and the evolution of culture. The Enlightenment is important in the origins of:
A) medieval science.
B) social science.
C) classical Greek philosophy.
D) the idea that civilization did not improve.
Answer: B
Ref: 24
Diff: 2
TRUE/FALSE

26) The function of social science is primarily to determine social values and goals.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 1
Diff: 3

27) Knowledge is made up of knowledge of human beings, including culture and products, and knowledge of the natural environment.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 1
Diff: 3

28) Scientific knowledge can be roughly grouped into two major fields – humanities and language arts.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 2
Diff: 2

29) All expressions of human culture are unrelated and independent.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 3
Diff: 3

30) Social science disciplines are clearly defined so that no two fields cover the same subjects.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 3
Diff: 3

31) New fields of social science are evolving such as cognitive science.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 4
Diff: 2

32) There is little agreement among specialists in a particular social science about what distinguishes their field from others.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 4
Diff: 2

33) There are only disadvantages to the social sciences being specialized.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 5
Diff: 2

34) If the social sciences are ever going to have a united theory, it will be because people started thinking about the rules and how the various rules of the social sciences fit together.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 7
Diff: 2

35) Sociology is the study of the ways in which men and women make a living.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 7
Diff: 2

36) Geography has practical applications related to trade patterns, settlement of populations, and aggression and acquisition.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 7
Diff: 3

37) Science offers final explanations of the universe and its phenomena.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 8
Diff: 3

38) Controlled experiments play a very important role in the scientific method.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 9
Diff: 3

39) The saga of Hans, the Thinking Horse is an example of why a good scientist must have both skepticism and imagination.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 9
Diff: 1

40) Paul Feurabend argues that the correct methodology is no methodology.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 11
Diff: 2

41) To a considerable extent, the social scientist must substitute careful observation and the process of abstraction for experiments.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 12
Diff: 2

42) Social scientists have more difficulty than physical scientists in being objective. This means that social science is much less scientific than is physical science.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 13
Diff: 2

43) The scientific method is a set of beliefs all scientists use in the same way.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 13-14
Diff: 2
44) The line between what is social science and what is natural science is fixed.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 14
Diff: 1

45) Social scientists basically use the same approaches and methods and discourage different disciplinary approaches.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 15
Diff: 3

46) Today, the attempt to find patterns of social evolution that can be applied to all societies has been largely abandoned.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 16
Diff: 1

47) The processing speeds of computers double every two months according to Moore’s Law.
Answer: FALSE
Ref: 16
Diff: 2

48) Social scientists can have a great impact on policies by helping people to understand the issues.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 20
Diff: 2

49) One of the great problems in a democracy is getting the majority of people to reach substantial agreement on the major policies that should be followed to create a better society.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 20
Diff: 1

50) The function of social science is not primarily to determine social objectives but instead to discover how our objectives can be achieved.
Answer: TRUE
Ref: 20
Diff: 1

SHORT ANSWER ESSAYS

51) What is the importance of knowing the interrelationships among social science disciplines?
Ref: 3-5
Suggested Answer: It is important to know the interrelationships among social science disciplines because of the complexity of expressions of human culture. If you look at an aspect of human life from the perspective of only one discipline you are likely to miss things. In other words, to understand psychology sometimes you have to understand sociology and vice versa.
52) Outline the nine steps of scientific research presented in your text as research methods of social science. What is the purpose of these methods?
Ref: 13-15
Suggested Answer:
• Observe
• Define the problem
• Review the literature
• Observe some more
• Develop a theoretical framework and formulate a hypothesis
• Choose a research design
• Collect the necessary data
• Analyze the results
• Draw conclusions

The purpose of the scientific method is to systematically answer questions. The scientific method allows researchers to match objective findings with observations.

53) What is the difference between common sense and educated common sense? Why is the distinction important in science?
Ref: 16
Suggested Answer: Unlike common sense, educated common sense is rational thought based on observation and the best information available. Educated common sense attempts to match data with theories. This kind of distinction is important to science in that it led to the development of the scientific method.

54) What is the distinction between correlation and causation? Give a hypothetical example that might occur in social research to demonstrate each.
Ref: 17-19
Suggested Answer: Whereas causation implies that changes in one variable bring about change in another variable, correlation simply refers to the simultaneous movement of two variables. For example, the height and weight of adults are correlated, meaning that they are related. If a person is tall, he or she usually weighs more; however height does not cause a person’s weight.

55) Albert Einstein said that, “Theories should be as simple as possible, but not more so.” Why and how is this important in understanding social science methods and the whole purpose of social science?
Ref: 20-21
Suggested Answer: If a theory is complicated and difficult to understand it will be a harder explanation of the world to test. Complicated theories also obscure the purpose of social science, which is to understand and clarify social issues and social problems. If social scientists use simple theories that are easier to test and explain, they are better able to meet the goals relative to the field of social science.
Chapter 2 Human Origins
MULTIPLE CHOICE

1) The human species most probably originated five to seven million years ago in:
A) Europe.
B) Africa.
C) Asia.
D) South America.
Answer: B
Ref: 27
Diff: 1

2) Gregor Mendel discovered inheritance factors now called genes. Genes determine:
A) heredity but only in plants.
B) changes in earth movements.
C) the characteristics of future generations.
D) only beneficial physical traits.
Answer:
C Ref: 28
Diff: 1

3) The process of random genetic changes that create new characteristics is called:
A) natural selection.
B) mutation.
C) competition.
D) migration.
Answer: B
Ref: 28
Diff: 1

4) In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick unraveled the double helix structure of:
A) FDA.
B) the atom.
C) DNA.
D) hormones.
Answer: C
Ref: 30

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