Pathophysiology Functional Alterations in Human Health 1st Edition Braun Anderson Test Bank

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Pathophysiology Functional Alterations in Human Health 1st Edition Braun Anderson Test Bank

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ISBN-10: 0781762502

ISBN-13: 9780781762502 978-0781762502

1. Immunology is the study of:
A) The structure of the immune system
B) The function of the immune system
C) The phenomena of induced sensitivity and allergy
D) All of the options are correct
Ans: D

2. All blood cells are produced from which one of the following precursor cell types?
A) Myeloid progenitor C) Pluripotent stem
B) Lymphoid progenitor D) Neutrophil
Ans: C

3. Cells that become differentiated in the bone marrow are:
A) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes C) Plasma cells
B) Helper T lymphocytes D) T cell receptors
Ans: C

4. Which characteristic explains why some pathogens do not cause disease in humans?
A) Receptor binding B) Pathogenicity C) Invasiveness D) Potency
Ans: A

5. Which type of granulocyte is present in the greatest number?
A) Basophil B) Eosinophil C) Monocyte D) Neutrophil
Ans: D

6. An activated monocyte is also known as a:
A) Lymphocyte C) Polymorphonuclear leukocyte
B) Macrophage D) Plasma cell
Ans: B

7. The type of macrophage specific to the liver is:
A) Microglia B) Kupffer cells C) Langerhans’ cells D) Histiocytes
Ans: B

8. One primary cell type involved in adaptive immunity includes:
A) B lymphocyte B) Neutrophil C) Macrophage D) Dendritic cell
Ans: A

9. Antibodies are secreted from which one of the following cell types?
A) Macrophage C) Helper T lymphocytes
B) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte D) Plasma cells
Ans: D

10. One primary cell type involved in cell-mediated immunity includes:
A) B lymphocyte C) Macrophage
B) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes D) Dendritic cell
Ans: B

11. The membrane surface molecule expressed on cytotoxic T lymphocytes is:
A) CD8 B) CD4 C) TH1 D) TH2
Ans: A

12. The MHC class 1 molecule is recognized by which cell type?
A) CD8 B) CD4 C) TH1 D) TH2
Ans: A

13. The antibody class involved in hypersensitivity reaction is:
A) IgA B) IgE C) IgG D) IgM
Ans: B

14. Passive immunity obtained from mother to the fetus is mediated by:
A) IgA B) IgE C) IgG D) IgM
Ans: C

15. This type of hypersensitivity reaction involves degranulation of basophils and mast cells when IgE binds to an allergen.
A) Immediate hypersensitivity reaction C) Immune complex reaction
B) Antibody-mediated reaction D) Autoimmune reaction
Ans: A

16. This type of hypersensitivity reaction involves failure of the development of self-tolerance.
A) Immediate hypersensitivity reaction C) Immune complex reaction
B) Antibody-mediated reaction D) Autoimmune reaction
Ans: D

17. This type of hypersensitivity reaction involves complement activation stimulated by deposition of bound antigen to antibody.
A) Immediate hypersensitivity reaction C) Immune complex reaction
B) Antibody-mediated reaction D) Autoimmune reaction
Ans: C

18. A graft between unrelated individuals is called:
A) Autograft B) Allograft C) Synergeneic graft D) Monogeneic graft
Ans: B

19. Treatment to regulate the immune response through interference with DNA synthesis in dividing cells is achieved through the use of:
A) Cytotoxic drugs C) Bacterial derivative drugs
B) Anti-inflammatory medications D) Fungal derivative drugs
Ans: A

20. The loss of cell-mediated and humoral immunity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by:
A) CD4 lymphocytes C) Plasma B lymphocytes
B) CD8 lymphocytes D) Memory B lymphocytes
Ans: A

21. Which of the following serves as the rationale for AIDS treatment with antiretroviral therapy?
A) Monotherapy with reverse transcriptase inhibitors
B) Monotherapy with protease inhibitors
C) Monotherapy with fusion inhibitors
D) Triple therapy with reverse transcriptase and protease and fusion inhibitors
Ans: D

22. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an example of which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
A) Type I B) Type II C) Type III D) Type IV
Ans: C

23. Anaphylaxis is mediated by which class of antibody?
A) IgA B) IgE C) IgG D) IgM
Ans: B

24. Fetal manifestations of Rh isoimmunization include which of the following?
A) Hemolysis B) Jaundice C) Anemia D) All of the options are correct
Ans: D

25. Describe the difference between innate and adaptive immunity.
Ans: Innate immunity is the first responder to pathogen insult and involves macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. The functions of the innate immune system include prevention of microbial colonization, entry, and spread. The innate immune response is early and rapid, initiated by a variety of pathogens without requiring prior exposure. Adaptive immunity occurs slowly and involves the T and B lymphocytes as the primary cell types. The adaptive immune response is stimulated by phagocytosis and activation of antigen-presenting cells, promoting defense against reinfection. Key properties of the adaptive immune system include specificity, diversity, memory, and self versus nonself recognition.

26. Describe the role of clonal selection in the adaptive immune system.
Ans: Clonal selection involves a single, specific receptor on each lymphocyte. When the receptor binds to its antigen, a signal stimulating repeated rounds of mitosis leads to clones of the antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes providing the basis of the immune response.

27. List the clinical manifestations for anaphylaxis.
Ans: Bronchospasm, urticaria, angioedema, hypotension, and edema.

28. Compare and contrast the two response stages involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
Ans: Stage I manifestations are related to mast cell degranulation and include vasodilatation and nonvascular smooth muscle contraction. The second stage is characterized by manifestations similar to those in stage I, stimulated by lipid mediators.

29. List ways that pathogens can evade the immune system.
Ans: Host defense failure, antigenic variation, viral latency, immunosuppression, and immunodeficiency.

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